This policy paper proceeds to a review of analyses and articles on the causes and features of the Covid-19 crisis, as well as on the proposals submitted to address it.

Overall, three main approaches can be distinguished:

  • the Covid-19 crisis is an external shock of temporary nature
  • the Covid-19 crisis is an accelerator of structural weaknesses arising from economic, productive and financial globalization
  • the Covid-19 crisis is the symptom of a much deeper ecosystemic crisis

Despite their differences, these approaches seem to converge on the necessity to develop renewed and extended forms of public intervention.

The new global risks arising from climate change, environmental degradation, the increase of world population and the emergence of new infectious and other diseases require the widening of the knowledge, scope and tools of economic policymakers.

The concept and applied dimensions of sustainability is evolving into a new urgency and imperative. In this context, new areas of action in order to prevent and respond to future public health crises are emerging.


Economic & Social Analysis Unit – ENA